What would Americans’ foreign attitudes be like if they knew and thought more about the issues? Would they change, belying claims that most people have already approximated their “full-information” preferences by simple cues and cognitive shortcuts? If so, in what direction? This paper examines the results from two parallel national Deliberative Polls, one face-to-face and one online. We also consider the more methodological question of how the effects of face-to-face and online deliberation, at least as represented in these two designs, may differ.

Research Paper